Hitherto, the area has lacked a complete classification and terminology necessary as a standard for comparative descriptions. Manufacturers produce these waxes in several forms. Think of how wax  was used thirty years ago, and how it is still being used - waxed paper, milk cartons, paper drinking cups, etc. Download Citation | On May 1, 2002, Anthony Kinsel and others published Method for Classification of Petroleum Waxes | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Harmonisation is based on the substance’s physical, toxicological and eco-toxicological hazard assessment. the application of waxes to wooden floors to improve their appearance and provide protection dates back several hundred years. A refined classification and terminology of epicuticular waxes is therefore proposed based on high-resolution SEM analysis of at least 13 000 species, representing all major groups of seed plants. They are used in foods (such as chewing gum and cheese wrapping), in candles and cosmetics, as non-stick and waterproofing coatings and in polishes. Classification of dyes 1. Sticky Wax. wax can be used to form a coating that allows oxygen to pass but not water; generating numerous applications in such diverse areas as cosmetics, food, packaging, furniture, time release properties, etc. Utility Wax 2. They are esters of fatty acids with long hydrocarbon chains. In another context, lipstick and mascara are blends of various fats and waxes colored with pigments, and both beeswax and lanolin are used in other cosmetics. Petroleum wax producers also characterize wax by degree of refinement; fully refined paraffin has oil content generally less than 0.5%, and fully-refined micro-crystalline less than 3%. Waxes: Wax is an organic compound that may consist of 12-32 carbon atoms. Inks: graphical printing inks include wax in their formulation as an anti-scuff agent. Synthetic waxes have also taken some market share from petroleum waxes as an alternative wax type. Inlay Wax 1. These molecules are completely water-insoluble and generally solid at biological temperatures. The acids and alcohols normally found in waxes have chains of the order of 12-34 carbon atoms in length. Base plate Wax 3. 3 – readymade clasp wax. Commercial names: harvard, kerr, peck etc. two different lubricants are used in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride thermoplastic: internal and external; and two different types of wax are used in the lubricants. [7] It is very hard, reflecting the high concentration of saturated fatty acids and alcohols. Waxes such as paraffin wax or beeswax, and hard fats such as tallow are used to make candles, used for lighting and decoration. Polyethylene waxes are manufactured by one of three methods: 1- direct polymerization of ethylene (may include co -monomers also);[8] 2- thermal degradation of high molecular weight polyethylene resin;[9] 3- recovery of low molecular weight fractions from high molecular weight resin production. [3] The main use of polyethylene and polypropylene waxes is in the formulation of colourants for plastics. Some producers also sell "intermediate" wax, in which the boiling range is cut where the transition in crystal size and structure occur. Used for major connector of metallic denture base. Refining of LPW to produce a polyethylene wax involves removal of oligomers and hazardous catalyst. This growth in demand is driven by a number of new uses for the material. "Mineral" wax can also be produced from lignite. Spermaceti. Natural waxes are often mixtures of such esters, and may also contain hydrocarbons. Classification of car waxes according to their composition According to their main compound, waxes can be of three types: Carnauba or natural wax . These materials represent a significant fraction of petroleum. Chewing gum: chewing gum base is a compound of elastomers, resin and food-grade wax to which other materials are added to produce chewing gum. Hot melt adhesives: waxes are present in most hot melt adhesive formulations to control the viscosity of the adhesive and contribute to open time, flexibility and elongation. found in the animal and vegetable-based waxes. Hitherto, the area has lacked a complete classification and terminology necessary as a standard for comparative descriptions. Synthetic waxes often consist of homologous series of long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons (alkanes or paraffins) that lack functional groups.[1]. It is sprayed on citrus and other fruit to protect from oxidation and enhance appearance, and in meat and bone wraps. Carbon paper, used for making duplicate typewritten documents was coated with carbon black suspended in wax, typically montan wax, but has largely been superseded by photocopiers and computer printers. Proper refining of LPW to produce polyethylene wax is especially important when being used in applications requiring FDA or other regulatory certification. Waxes will form protective coating on plants and fruits, and in animal (example: beewax, whale spermacits, etc.). waxes are present in most hot melt adhesive formulations to control the viscosity of the adhesive and contribute to open time, flexibility and elongation. The formulas for three well known waxes are given below, with the carboxylic … In total 23 wax types are classified. Those of animal origin typically consist of wax esters derived from a variety of fatty acids and carboxylic alcohols. It is also employed for insulating components of electrical equipment and … It is also used as an extreme pressure-additive for metalworking fluids and other lubricants. Sealing wax was used to close important documents in the Middle Ages. Wax creates a physical barrier between the tire surface and the atmosphere. Waxes are widely used in the cosmetic industry in products such as lipstick, mascara, moisturizing creams and sunblock. Thin wax films appear to be ubiquitous, while thicker layers or crusts are rare. The soluble fraction obtained when CM are extracted with suitable solvents is called soluble cuticular lipids (SCL) or cuticular waxes. A second group of neutral lipids that are of physiological importance, though they are a minor component of biological systems, are waxes. wax is added as a water repellent in the production of wood-based manufactured composite boards such as particle board, medium density, oriented strand and other board products. [4] This approach has relied on green chemistry approaches including olefin metathesis and enzymatic reactions and can be used to produce waxes from inexpensive starting materials like vegetable oils.[5][6]. Also, the sports of surfing and skateboarding often use wax to enhance the performance. Sebum, the secretion of sebaceous glands in our skin is a mixture of waxes and triglycerides Users do not modify or use the Information for any other purpose without Eagle Petrochem permission. Flexible packaging: Food-grade waxes and wax blends are used in laminating compounds and surface coatings to provide strength, to waterproofing, and improve appearance and moisture-vapor transmission. Paraffin is widely used in candles, crayons, and industrial polishes. Waxes are organic compounds, hydrocarbons that characteristically consist of long aliphatic alkyl chains, although aromatic compounds may also be present. Microcrystalline wax is a lesser produced petroleum based wax that contains higher percentage of isoparaffinic (branched) hydrocarbons and naphthenic hydrocarbons. Waxes are a diverse class of organic compounds that are lipophilic, malleable solids near ambient temperatures. 2020/2021 Waxes are also used in shoe polishes, wood polishes, and automotive polishes, as mold release agents in mold making, as a coating for many cheeses, and to waterproof leather and fabric. Waxes are used as finishes and coatings for wood products. Markets for wax are truly diverse, ranging from simple fuel in manufactured fire logs and candles, to practical applications such as adhesives, anti-oxidation agents in tires, and sizing in construction materials, to even more exotic uses in cosmetics and foods Here with some examples: Building materials: wax is added as a water repellent in the production of wood-based manufactured composite boards such as particle board, medium density, oriented strand and other board products. External lubricants are not soluble in PVC and can produce a film between the PVC and its extrusion equipment. Understanding the fundamental characteristics that define the nature of asphaltenes and waxes is valuable in reducing or avoiding the production impacts of their deposition. 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